Éamon de Valera (1882-1975), M.P. for East Clare, 1918, from the National Library of Ireland on The Commons, via Flickr. De Valera was born in New York. He was spared a death sentence for his role in 1916 because of his American birth. Against the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, de Valera founded the political party Fianna Fáil in 1926. Later, he served multiple terms as head of government and then head of state. He led the introduction of a new Constitution of Ireland in 1937.