GOLGI APPARATUS: The Golgi apparatus gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. It then takes those big molecules, packages them in vesicles, and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell. It is also the organelle that builds lysosomes (cell digestion machines).
CELL MEMBRANE: The Cell membrane is made up of proteins and phospholipids. It is arranged in a "phospholipid bilayer" and it is semi-permeable. The cell membrane is hydrophilic and hydrophobic. It lets some things into and out of the cell. The cell membrane protects the cell, keeps everything in the cell, and regulates what goes in and out.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION: Cellular respiration is how the cell, more specifically, the mitochondria, changes glucose and oxygen into Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP (energy for the cell).
Differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells: Prokaryotic cells are single-celled organisms. Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are animal and plant cells. Prokaryotic is more commonly bacteria.
Every animal-like cell has two small organelles called centrioles. They are there to help the cell when it comes time to divide. They are put to work in both the process of mitosis and the process of meiosis. You will usually find them near the nucleus but they cannot be seen when the cell is not dividing.
VACUOLE: Vacuoles are storage bubbles found in cells. They are found in both animal and plant cells but are much larger in plant cells. Vacuoles might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination. Eventually, those waste products would be sent out of the cell.
EUKARYOTIC CELL: Has a nucleus for the"brain" for the cell. The nucleus holds all of the DNA of the cell. An example of something that is eukaryotic cell would be any type of animal or plant.
LYSOSOME: Lysosomes hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of the lysosome is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies. A lysosome is basically a specialized vesicle that holds a variety of enzymes.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: The smooth endoplasmic reticulum acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of lipids and steroids. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is very important in the synthesis and packaging of proteins. Ribosomes are attached to the membrane of the ER, making it “rough.” The RER is also attached to the nuclear envelope that surrounds the nucleus.
NUCLEUS: The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It contains all of the genetic material (DNA) of the organism. In the center of the nucleus there is a nucleolus. The nucleolus makes ribosomes.
CELL WALL: The cell wall is around the cell of a plant. Cell walls are not found in animal cells. A cell wall is sturdier than a cell membrane because plants do not need flexibility, they need rigidity or structure.
CYTOPLASM: Cytoplasm is the fluid that fills a cell. The cell organelles are suspended in the cytosol. The cytoplasm has many different molecules dissolved in solution. You'll find enzymes, fatty acids, sugars, and amino acids that are used to keep the cell working. Waste products are also dissolved before they are taken in by vacuoles or sent out of the cell.
MITOCHONDRIA: The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. It takes in nutrients from the food that you eat and through a process called respiration, turns it into ATP, the energy for the cell!
RIBOSOMES: Ribosomes are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell. They are like construction guys who connect one amino acid at a time and build long chains. Ribosomes are found in many places around a eukaryotic cell. You might find them floating in the cytosol. Those floating ribosomes make proteins that will be used inside of the cell. Other ribosomes are found on the endoplasmic reticulum.