Last updated 8 years ago
Hypomagnesemia Signs and Symptoms. Heart: Dysrhythmias. CNS: Insomnia, seizures. Skeletal Muscle: Twitching, cramping, grimacing, tremors. Neuromuscular Excitability: Increased excitability, Trousseau sign, Chvostek sign, hyperactive reflexes, tetany. GI: Dysphagia. Other: Nystagmus, ataxia.
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia means an abnormal high level of potassium in the blood. This condition is a medical emergency since it can cause cardiac arrest. Some management are: insulin (to increase cellular reuptake); a gluconate (antagonize cardiac effect); Na bicarbonate (reverse acidosis); kayexalate (K exchange resin); dialysis; and diuretics.
Calcium Form Periodic Table Of Elements Stock Illustration - Illustration of mendeleev, laboratory: 6814686
Hypocalcemia Signs and Symptoms. Heart: Dysrhythmias, inpaired myocardial contractility. CNS: Seizures. Skeletal Muscle: Twitching, cramping, carpal spasm, pedal spasm. Neuromuscular Excitability: Increased excitability, Trousseau sign, Chvostek sign, paresthesias, hyperactive reflexes, tetany. Other: Laryngospasm.
ECG – A Pictorial Primer
ECG signs of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia may not be obvious even in patients who have deranged plasma calcium concentrations that are clinically significant. If they are present, hypercalcemia is associated with short QT interval (A) and hypocalcemia with long QT interval (B). Interval shortening or lengthening is mainly in the ST segment.